Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits in Western Java, Indonesia: Gold-Silver Selenide-Telluride Mineralization

Euis Tintin Yuningsih, Hiroharu Matsueda, Mega Fatimah Rosana

Abstract


DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i2.180

The gold-silver ores of western Java reflect a major metallogenic event during the Miocene-Pliocene and Pliocene ages. Mineralogically, the deposits can be divided into two types i.e. Se- and Te-type deposits with some different characteristic features. The objective of the present research is to summarize the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Se- and Te-type epithermal mineralization in western Java. Ore and alteration mineral assemblage, fluid inclusions, and radiogenic isotope studies were undertaken in some deposits in western Java combined with literature studies from previous authors. Ore mineralogy of some deposits from western Java such as Pongkor, Cibaliung, Cikidang, Cisungsang, Cirotan, Arinem, and Cineam shows slightly different characteristics as those are divided into Se- and Te-types deposits. The ore mineralogy of the westernmost of west Java region such as Pongkor, Cibaliung, Cikidang, Cisungsang, and Cirotan is characterized by the dominance of silver-arsenic-antimony sulfosalt with silver selenides and rarely tellurides over the argentite, while to the eastern part of West Java such as Arinem and Cineam deposits are dominated by silver-gold tellurides. The average formation temperatures measured from fluid inclusions of quartz associated with ore are in the range of 170 – 220°C with average salinity of less than 1 wt% NaClequiv for Se-type and 190 – 270°C with average salinity of ~2 wt% NaClequiv for Te-type.


Keywords


epithermal gold-silver deposit; fluid inclusions; selenides; Se-type; tellurides; Te-type; western Java

References


Ahmad, M., Solomon, M., and Walshe, J.L., 1987. Mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Emperor gold telluride deposit, Fiji. Economic Geology, 82, p.345-370. (DOI: 10.2113/gsecongeo.82.2.345)

Angeles, C.A., Prihatmoko, S., and Walker, J.S., 2002. Geology and alteration-mineralization characteristics of the Cibaliung epithermal gold deposit, Banten, Indonesia. Resource Geology, 52, p.329-339. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2002.tb00143.x)

Aoki, M., 1988. Gold mineralization in the Os- orezan hydrothermal system. Rock alteration and hot spring precipitates. Mining Geology, 38, p.64. (

Basuki, A., Sumanagara, D.A., and Sinambela, D., 1994. The Gunung Pongkor gold-silver de- posit, West Java, Indonesia. In: van Leeuwen, T.M., Hedenquist, J.W., James, L.P., and Dow, J.A.S. (eds.), Indonesian mineral deposits: Discoveries of the past 25 years. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 50, Amsterdam, p.371-391. (DOI: 10.1016/0375-6742(94)90032-9)

Bodnar, R. J., 1993. Revised equation and table for determining the freezing-point depression of H2O-NaCl solution. Geochimica et Cosmo-chimica Acta, 57, p.683-684. DOI: 10.1016/0016-7037(93)90378-A

Carlile, J.C. and Mitchell, A.H.G., 1994. Mag- matic arcs and associated gold and copper mineralization in Indonesia. In: van Leeuwen, T.M., Hedenquist, J.W., James, L.P., and Dow, J.A.S. (eds.), Indonesian mineral deposits: Discoveries of the past 25 years. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 50, Amsterdam, p.91-142.

Harijoko, A., Ohbuchi, Y., Motomura, Y., Imai, A., and Watanabe, K., 2007. Characteristic of the Cibaliung gold deposit: Miocene low- sulfidation-type epithermal gold deposit in western Java, Indonesia. Resource Geology, 57, p.114-123. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2007.00011.x

Harijoko, A., Sanematsu, K., Duncan, R.A., Pri- hatmoko, S., and Watanabe, K., 2004. Timing of the mineralization and volcanism at Ciba- liung gold deposit, western Java, Indonesia. Resource Geology, 54, p.187-195. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2004.tb00199.x

Izawa, E., Urashima, Y., Ibaraki, K., Suzuki, R., Yokoyama, T., Kawasaki, K., Koga, A., and Taguchi, S., 1990. The Hishikari gold deposit: high grade gold epithermal epithermal veins in Quaternary volcanics of southern Kyushu, Japan. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 36, p.1-36.

DOI: 10.1016/0375-6742(90)90050-K

Kelly, W.C. and Goddard, E.N., 1969. Telluride ores of Boulder County, Colorado. Memoir of Geological Society of America, 109, 237pp. DOI: 10.1130/MEM109-p1

Marcoux, E. and Milesi, J.P., 1994. Epithermal gold deposit in West Java, Indonesia: Geol- ogy, age and crustal source. In: van Leeuwen, T.M., Hedenquist, J.W., James, L.P., and Dow, J.A.S. (eds.), Indonesian mineral deposits: Discoveries of the past 25 years. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 50, Amsterdam, p.393-408. DOI: 10.1016/0375-6742(94)90033-7

Marcoux, E., Milesi, J.P., Soeharto, S., and Rinawan, R., 1993. Noteworthy mineralogy of the Au-Ag-Sn-W(Bi) epithermal ore deposit of Cirotan, West Java, Indonesia. Canadian Mineralogist, 31, p.727-744.

Marjoribanks, R., 2000. Geology of the Honje- Cibaliung Area, Indonesia - An air photo interpretation based study. Unpublished Re- port, 13pp.

Matsuhisa, Y. and Aoki, M., 1994. Temperature and oxygen isotope variations during formation of the Hishikari epithermal gold-silver veins, southern Kyushu, Japan. Economic Geology, 89, p DOI: 10.2113/gsecongeo.89.7.1608

Matsuhisa, Y., Morishita, Y., and Sato, T., 1985. Oxygen and carbon isotope variations in gold- bearing hydrothermal veins in the Kushikino mining area, southern Kyushu, Japan. Eco- nomic Geology, 80, p.283-293. DOI: 10.2113/gsecongeo.80.2.283

Milesi, J.P., Marcoux, E., Nehlig, P., Sunarya, Y., Sukandar, A., and Felenc, J., 1993. Ciro- tan, West Java, Indonesia: A 1.7 Ma Hybrid Epithermal Au-Ag-Sn-W Deposit. Economic Geology, 89, p.227-245. DOI: 10.2113/gsecongeo.89.2.227

Milesi, J.P., Marcoux, E., Sitorus, T., Simand- juntak, M., Leroy, J., and Baily, L., 1999. Pongkor (West Java, Indonesia): A Pliocene supergene-enriched epithermal Au-Ag- (Mn) deposit. Mineralium Deposita, 34, p.131-149. DOI: 10.1007/s001260050191

Rosana, M.F., Haryanto, A.D., Yuniardi, Y., and Yuningsih, E.T., 2006. The occurrences of base metal Mineralization in Cikadu- Cisungsang area, Banten Province, Indonesia. Prosiding Persidangan Bersama Geosains ITB-UKM, p.164-166.

Rosana, M.F. and Matsueda, H., 2002. Cikidang hydrothermal gold deposit in western Java, Indonesia. Resource Geology, 52, p. 341-358. Saunders, J.A. and May, E.R., 1986. Bessie G: A high-grade epithermal gold telluride deposit, La Plata County, Colorado, U.S.A. In: Mac- donald, A.J. (ed.), Proceedings of Gold 86, An International Symposium on the Geology of Gold: Toronto, p.436-444. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2002.tb00144.x

Shikazono, N., Nakata, M., and Shimizu, M., 1990. Geochemical, mineralogic and geologic characteristics of Se- and Te-bearing epither- mal gold deposits in Japan. Mining Geology, 40, p.337-352.

Sillitoe, R.H. and Hedenquist, J.W., 2003. Link- ages between volcano-tectonic setting, ore- fluid compositions, and epithermal precious metal deposits. Economic Geology, Special Publication, 10, p.315-343.

Sindeeva, N.D., 1964. Mineralogy and types of deposits of selenium and tellurium. Intersci- ence publishers, 363pp.

So, C.S., Dunchenko, V.Y., Yun, S.T., Park, M.E., Choi, S.G., and Shelton, K.L., 1995. Te- and Se-bearing epithermal Au-Ag mineralization, Prasolovskoye, Kunashir Island, Kuril Island arc. Economic Geology, 90, p.105-117. DOI: 10.2113/gsecongeo.90.1.105

Sudana, D. and Santosa, S., 1992. Geology of the Cikarang Quadrangle, Java. Scale 1:100.000. Geological Research and Development Centre, 13pp.

Sukarna, D., 1999. Rare elements distribution in Cirotan epithermal gold deposits. Indonesian Mining, 5, p.1-10.

Sukarna, D., Noya, Y., and Mangga, S.A., 1994. Petrology and geochemistry of the Tertiary plutonic and volcanic rocks in the Bayah area. Proceedings of Indonesian Geologist Association, p.389-412.

Syafrizal, Imai, A., Motomura, Y., and Watanabe, K., 2005. Characteristics of gold mineralization at the Ciurug vein, Pongkor gold-silver deposit, West Java, Indonesia. Resource Geology, 55, p.225-238.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2005.tb00244.x

Syafrizal, Imai, A., and Watanabe, K., 2007. Origin of ore-forming fluids responsible for gold mineralization of the Pongkor Au-Ag deposit, West Java, Indonesia: Evidence from mineralogic, fluid inclusion microthermometric and stable isotope data of the Ciurug-Cikoret veins. Resource Geology, 57, p.136-148. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2007.00013.x

Warmada, I.W., Lehmann, B., and Simandjuntak, M., 2003. Polymetallic sulfides and sulfosalts of the Pongkor epithermal gold-silver deposit, West Java, Indonesia. Canadian Mineralogist, 41, p.185-200. DOI: 10.2113/gscanmin.41.1.185

Warmada, I.W., Lehmann, B., Simandjuntak, M., and Hemes, H.S., 2007. Fluid inclusion, REE and stable isotope study of carbonate minerals from the Pongkor epithermal gold-silver deposit, West Java, Indonesia. Resource Geology, 57, p.124-135. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2007.000012.x

Widi, B.N. and Matsueda, H., 1998. Epithermal gold-silver-tellurides- deposit of Cineam, Tasikmalaya District, West Java, Indonesia. Directorate of Mineral Resources Indonesia, Special Publication, 96, p.1-19.

Yuningsih, E.T., Matsueda, H., Setyaraharja, E.P., and Rosana, M.F., 2012. The Arinem Te-bearing gold-silver-base metal deposit, West Java, Indonesia. Resource Geology, 62, p.140-158. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2012.00185.x


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience by https://ijog.geologi.esdm.go.id/index.php/IJOG/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Indexing Site :

 

 

 

Follow us on:


shopify visitor statistics
View My Stats