Advanced Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Remote Sensing for Detecting Pre- and Syn-eruption Signatures at Mount Sinabung, North Sumatra, Indonesia

Asep Saepuloh, Prima Rizky Mirelva, Ketut Wikantika

Abstract


DOI:10.17014/ijog.6.2.123-140

Mount Sinabung was re-activated at August 28th, 2010 after a long repose interval. The early stage of a phreatic eruption was then followed by magmatic eruptions at September 15th, 2013 for years until now. To understand the ground surface changes accompanying the eruption periods, comprehensive analyses of surface and subsurface data are necessary, especially the condition in pre- and syn-eruption periods. This study is raised to identify ground surface and topographical changes before, intra, and after the eruption periods by analyzing the temporal signature of surface roughness, moisture, and deformation derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The time series of SAR backscattering intensity were analyzed prior to and after the early eruption periods to know the lateral ground surface changes including estimated lava dome roughness and surface moisture. Meanwhile, the atmospherically corrected Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) method was also applied to know the vertical topographical changes prior to the eruptions. The atmospheric correction based on modified Referenced Linear Correlation (mRLC) was applied to each D-InSAR pair to exclude the atmospheric phase delay from the deformation signal. The changes of surface moistures on syn-eruptions were estimated by calculating dielectric constant from SAR polarimetric mode following Dubois model. Twenty-one Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR) data on board Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) and nine Sentinel-1A SAR data were used in this study with the acquisition date between February 2006 and February 2017. For D-InSAR purposes, the ALOS PALSAR data were paired to generate twenty interferograms. Based on the D-InSAR deformation, three times inflation-deflation periods were observed prior to the early eruption at August 28th 2010. The first and second inflation-deflation periods at the end of 2008 and middle 2009 presented migration of magma batches and dike generations in the deep reservoir. The third inflation-deflation periods in the middle of 2010 served as a precursor signal presenting magma feeding to the shallow reservoir. The summit was inflated about 1.4 cm and followed by the eruptions. The deflation of about 2.3 cm indicated the release pressure and temperature in the shallow reservoir after the early eruption at August 28th, 2010. The last inflation-deflation period was also confirmed by the increase of the lava dome roughness size from 5,121 m2 on July to 6,584 m2 on August. The summit then inflated again about 1.1 cm after the first eruption and followed by unrest periods presented by lava dome growth and destruction at September 15th, 2013. The volcanic products including lava and pyroclastics strongly affected the moisture of surface layer. The volcanic products were observed to reduce the surface moisture within syn-eruption periods. The hot materials are presumed responsible for the evaporation of the surface moisture as well.


Keywords


ALOS PALSAR; Sentinel-1A; D-InSAR; surface moisture; Mt. Sinabung

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