Exhumation and Tectonomagmatic Processes of the Granitoid Rocks from Sulawesi, Indonesia: Constrain from Petrochemistry and Geothermobarometry Study

Adi Maulana, Akira Imai, Koichiro Watanabe, Theo van Leeuwen, Sri Widodo, Musri Musri

Abstract


DOI:10.17014/ijog.6.2.153-174

Exhumation and tectonomagmatic processes of the granitoid from Sulawesi were discussed using petrochemistry (e.g. petrographic and major element compositions) and geothermobarometry data (mineral chemistry data). Detailed petrographic observations were conducted to determine the mineral composition, texture, and structure of the granitoid rocks, whereas the whole rock composition were determined using XRF method, and the mineral chemistry was analyzed using Electron Microprobe Analyzer (EPMA). The granitoids are classified as calc-alkaline, metaluminous I-type. Pressures of 0.91 to 1.2 kbar and emplacement depths of 3.2 to 4.3 km at temperatures of 677 - 729°C were estimated for Mamasa Pluton. Whereas Masamba Pluton was emplaced at pressures of 2.3 to 2.8 kbar, temperatures of 756 - 774°C, and emplacement depths of 8.2 to 10 km. Moreover, Lalos-Toli and Sony Plutons were emplaced at temperatures of 731 to 736°C and 601 to 609°C, respectively. The pressures varying from 3.1 to 3.3 kbar and 3.2 to 3.4 kbar, equate to an emplacement depth of 11.3 and 11.6 km, respectively. Gorontalo Pluton emplaced at temperatures of 662 - 668°C with the pressure range from 2.6 to 2.7 kbar, is equivalent to 9.3 km deep. Varied oxidation state (ranging from -14 to 19) is inferred from the mineral assemblages, showing a strong association with highly oxidized I-type series granitic rocks. The exhumation rate estimation shows that Mamasa and Masamba Plutons were exhumed respectively at a rate of 0.37 and 1.6 mm/year, whereas Lalos-Toli and Sony Plutons at 1.4 and 2.7 mm/year, respectively. Gorontalo Pluton located in the Northern Sulawesi Province was exhumed at 0.42 mm/year. The rapid exhumation rate of Sony Pluton is attributed to the active vertical movement of Palu-Koro Fault Zone which has been active since Pliocene. It shows that faulting may play an important role in differential exhumation of intrusive bodies in the orogenic belt.


Keywords


petrochemistry; geothermobarometry; exhumation; granitic rocks; Sulawesi; Indonesia

References


Abdel-Rahman A 1994 Nature of biotites from alkaline, calc-alkaline and peraluminous magmas; Journal of Petrology 35(2) 525-541.

Albuquerque, G.A.R., 1973. Geochemistry of biotites from granitic rocks, Northern Portugal. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 37 (2), p.1779-802. DOI: 10.1016/0016-7037(73)90163-4

Altherr R, Holl A, Hegner E, Langer C and Kreuzer H. 2000. High-potassium, calc-alkaline I-type plutonism in the European Variscides: northern Vosges (France) and northern Schwartzwald (Germany); Lithos 50 51-73.

Anderson J L 1996 Status of thermobarometry in granitic batholiths; Trans Royal Soc. Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 87 125–138.

Albuquerque G A R 1973 Geochemistry of biotites from granitic rocks, Northern Portugal; Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37(2) 1779-802.

Anderson J L and Smith D R 1995 The effects of temperature and fO2 on the Al-in-hornblende barometer; American Mineralogist 8 549–559.

Audley-Charles M G, Carter D J & Milsom J 1972 Tectonic development of Eastern Indonesia in relation to Gondwanaland dispersal; Nature 239 35-39.

Barbarin B 1999 A review of the relationships between granitoid types, their origins and their geodynamic environments; Lithos 46 605-626.

Barbarin B 1990 Granitoids: main petrogenetic classification in relation to origin and tectonic setting; Geological Journal 25 227-238.

Bellon H and Ranging C 1991 Geochemistry and isotopic dating of Cenozoic volcanic arc sequences around the Celebes and Sulu Sea. In: Proc. of the Ocean Drilling Program Scientific Results Vol. 124 (eds) E A Silver, C Ranging and M T von Breman et al. 24 pp 321 – 338.

Bellier O, Sebrier M, Beaoudouin T, Villeneuve M, Braucher R, Bourles D, Siame L, Putranto E & Pratomo I 2001 High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia); Terra Nova 13 (6) 463 – 470.

Bergman S C, Coffield D Q, Talbot J P & Garrard R A 1996 Tertiary tectonic and magmatic evolution of western Sulawesi and the Makassar Strait, Indonesia: evidence for a Miocene continent-continent collision. In: Tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia (eds) R Hall and D J Blundell; Geology Society (London) Special Publication. 106 pp 391-429

Blundy J D and Holland T J B 1990 Calcic amphibole equilibria and a new amphibole-plagioclase geothermometer; Contrib Mineral Petrol. 104 208–224.

Brichau S, Ring U, Carter A, Monnie P, Stockli D and Brunel M 2007 Extensional faulting on Tinos Island, Aegean Sea, Greece: How many detachments?; Tectonic 26 TC4009

Chappell B W and White A J R 1974 Two contrasting granite types; Pacific Geology 8 173-174.

Copeland P, Harrison T M, Kidd W S F, Ronghua X & Yuquan Z 1987 Rapid early Miocene acceleration of uplift in the Gangdese Belt, Xijiang (southern Tibet), and its bearing on accommodation mechanisms of the India-Asia collision; Earth and Planetary Science Letters 86 240 – 252.

Deer W A, Howie A and Zussman J 1992 An Introduction to the rock-forming mineral 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall, Harlow, 549 pp

Elburg M A and Foden J 1998 Temporal changes in arc magma geochemistry, Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia; Earth and Planetary Science Letter 163 381-398.

Elburg M A and Foden J 1999 Sources for magmatism in Central Sulawesi: Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic constraints; Chemical Geology 156 67-93

Elburg M A, Van Leeuwen T, Foden J and Muhardjo 2003 Spatial and temporal isotopic domains of contrasting igneous suites in Western and Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia; Chemical Geology 199 243 - 276.

England P and Molnar P 1990 Surface uplift, uplift of rocks and exhumation of rocks; Geology 18 1173 – 1177.

Garrard R A, Supanjdono J B & Surono 1988 The Geology of the Banggai-Sula microcontinents, Eastern Indonesia; Proceedings Indonesia Petroleum Association 17th Annual Convention pp 23-52.

Hall R 2011 Australia – SE Asia collision: plate tectonic and crustal flow. In: The SE Asian gateway: history and tectonic of Australian – Asia collision (eds) R Hall, M A Cottam, & MEJ Wilson; Geological Society (London) Special Publication 355 pp 75 – 109.

Hamilton W 1979 Tectonics of the Indonesian Region. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1078 p

Hall R and Sevastjanova I 2012 Australian crust in Indonesia; Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 59 827 – 844.

Hammarstrom J M and Zen E A 1986 Aluminium in Hornblende: An Empirical Igneous Géobaromètre; American Mineralogist 71 1297-1313

Helmers H, Maaskant P & Hartel T H D 1990 Garnet peridotite and associated high-grade rocks from central Sulawesi, Indonesia; Lithos 28 171 – 188.

Hinschberger F, Malod J, Rehault P, Villeneuve M, Royer Y & Burhanuddin S 2005 Late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of eastern Indonesia; Tectonophysic 404 pp 91-118.

Holland T and Blundy J 1994 Non-ideal interactions in calcic amphiboles and their bearing on amphibole-plagioclase thermometry; Contrib Mineral Petrol. 116 433–447.

Hollister L S, Grissom G C, Peters E K, Stowell H.H, Sisson V B 1987 Confirmation of the empirical correlation of Al in hornblende with pressure of solidification of calc-alkaline plutons; American Mineralogist 72 231–239

Irvine T N and Baragar W R A 1971 A Guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks; Canadian Journal of Earth Science 8 523 – 548.

Kadarusman A, Miyashita S, Maruyama S, Parkinson C. D. & Ishikawa A. 2004. Petrology, geochemistry and paleogeographic reconstruction of the East Sulawesi Ophiolite, Indonesia; Tectonophysic 392 55-83

Leake B E, Woolley A R, Arps C E S, Birch W D, Gilbert M C, Grice J D, Hawthorne F C, Kato A, Kisch H J, Krivovichev V G, Linthout K, Laird J, Mandarino J, Maresch W V, Nickel E H, Rock N M S, Schumacher J C, Smith D C, Stephenson N C N, Ungaretti L, Whittaker E J W and Youzhi G 1997 Nomenclature of amphiboles: Report of the subcommittee on amphibolesn of the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names; Canadian Mineralogist 35 219–246

Leake B E 1971 On aluminous and edenitic amphiboles; Mineralogical Magazine 38 (296) 389- 407

Moazzen M and Droop G T R 2005 Application of mineral thermometers and barometers to granitoid igneous rocks: the Etive Complex, W Scotland; Mineralogy and Petrology 83 27–53

Maulana A 2009 Petrology, geochemistry and metamorphic evolution of the south Sulawesi basement rocks complexes, Indonesia; M.Phil. thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

Maulana, A., Christy, A., Ellis, D. Imai, A., Watanabe, K. 2013. Geochemistry of eclogite- and blueschist- facies rocks from the Bantimala Complex, South Sulawesi, Indonesia: Protolith origin and tectonic setting. Island Arc 22, 427-452.

Maulana, A., Christy, A., Ellis, D. 2015. Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic significance of serpentinized ultramafic rocks from the South Arm of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Chemie der Erde 75, 73-87.

Maulana, A., Imai, A., van Leeuwen, T., Koichiro, W., Yonezu, K., Takanori, N., Boyce, A., Page, L., Schersten, A. 2016. Origin and geodynamic setting of Late Cenozoic granitoids in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 124, 102-125.

Nockolds S R 1947 The relation between chemical composition and paragenesis in the biotite micas of igneous rocks; American Journal of Science 245(7) 401-420

Parkinson C D 1998 An outline of the petrology, structure and age of the Pompangano Schist Complex of central Sulawesi, Indonesia; The Island Arc 7 231-245.

Pigram C J and Panggabean H 1984 Rifting of northern margin of the Australian continent and the origin of some microcontinents in eastern Indonesia; Tectonophysics 107 331-353.

Polvé M, Maury R C, Bellon H, Rangi C, Priadi B, Yuwono S, Joron J L and Soeria-Atmadja R 1997 Magmatic evolution of Sulawesi: constraints on the Cenozoic geodynamic history of the Sundaland active margin; Tectonophysics 272 69-92.

Ramsay J G 1980 Shear zone geometry: a review; Journal of Structural Geology 2 83–99.

Roberts M and Clemens J 1993 Origin of high-potassium, calc alcaline, I-type granitoids; Geology 21 825-828

Schmidt M W 1992 Amphibole composition in tonalite as a function of pressure: An experimental calibration of the Al-in-hornblende barometer; Contrib. Mineral Petrol.

304–310

Sengor A M C and Natalin B A 1996 Paleotectonics of Asia: Fragments of a synthesis, In: The tectonic evolution of Asia (eds) A Yin and T M Harrison; pp 486–640. Cambridge University Press, New York

Speer J A 1984 Micas in Igneous Rocks. In: Micas: Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 13 (ed) S.W. Bailey; pp. 299-356. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington DC

Stein E and Dietl C 2001 Hornblende thermobarometry of granitoids from the Central

Odenwald (Germany) and their implications for the geotectonic development of the

Odenwald; Mineralogy and Petrology 7 185–207

Stouraiti C, Mitropoulos P, Tarney J, Barreiro B, Mcgrath A M and Baltatzis E 2010 Geochemistry and petrogenesis of late Miocene granitoids, Cyclades, southern Aegean: nature of source components; Lithos 114 337–352.

Sukamto R 1982 The geology of the Pangkajene and Western part of Watampone, South Sulawesi, scale 1 : 250.000. Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung.

Sukamto R 1996 Reconnaissance Geological Map of the Palu Quadrangle, Sulawesi. 1 - 250.000 in scale. Geological Research and Development Centre. Bandung.

Surono and Bahcri S 2002 Stratigraphy, sedimentation and paleogeographic significance of the Triassic Meluhu Formation, Southeast Arm of Sulawesi, eastern Indonesia; Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 20 177 – 192.

Taylor D and Van Leeuwen T 1980 Porphyry-type deposits in Southeast Asia; Mining Geology Special Issue 8 95 – 116.

Tulloch A J and Challis G A 2000 Emplacement Depths of Paleozoic-Mesozoic Plutons from Western New Zealand Estimated by Hornblende-Al Geobarometry; New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 43 (4) 555-567

Van Leeuwen TM, Kadarusman A, Allen C, Elburg M, Palin M and Muhardjo 2007 Petrologic, isotopic and radiometric age dating constraints on the origin and tectonic history of the Malino Metamorphic Complex, NW Sulawesi, Indonesia; Journal of Asia Earth Sciences 29 751 -777.

Wakita K, Sopaheluwakan J, Miyazaki K & Munasri 1996 Tectonic evolution of the Bantimala Complex, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. In: Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia (eds) R Hall & Blundell D J. Geological Society (London) Special Publication 106 pp 353-364.

Walpersdorf A, Vigny C, Subarya C & Manurung P 1998 Monitoring of the Palu-Koro Fault (Sulawesi) by GPS; Geophysical Research Letter 25 (13) 2313 – 2316.

Wilson M E J & Bosence D J W 1996 The Tertiary evolution of South Sulawesi; A record in redeposited carbonates of the Tonasa Limestone Formation. In: Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia (eds) R Hall & D J Blundell, Geology Society (London) Special Publication 106 pp 365-390.

Wones D R 1989 Significance of the assemblage titanite + magnetite+quartz in granitic rocks; American Mineralogist 74 744-749

Zhang S H, Zhao Y and Song B 2006 Hornblende thermobarometry of the Carboniferous granitoids from the inner Mongolia Paleo-uplift: implication for the tectonic evolution of the northern margin of North China block; Mineralogy and Petrology 87 123 – 141.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience by https://ijog.geologi.esdm.go.id/index.php/IJOG/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Indexing Site :

 

 

 

Follow us on:


shopify visitor statistics
View My Stats