The Determination of Volcanic Characteristics Based on Deuterium and Oxygen-18 Isotope Compositions: A Case Study at Dieng Plateau, Central Java

Priatna Priatna, Nana Sulaksana, Johanes Hutabarat, Iyan Haryanto



To find out volcanic characteristics, a geochemical approach can be used, one of which is through the measurement of deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopes from condensate and crater water samples. In this study, Dieng Plateau in Central Java was chosen, because it has a wide spread of fumarole fields and crater water. In addition, research in the Dieng Plateau is very useful in the management of geological-based tourism and geopark development in the future. Results of isotope analysis in Candradimuka Crater show the average number of isotope deuterium is δD – 500/00 and isotope oxygen-18 is δ18O –30/00 which produce the value of the mixing fraction of f 18O = 47.11%. This figure is the highest isotope number compared to other craters on the Dieng Plateau. The high value of the isotope-18 mixing fraction is supported by a strong plume from three vents in Candradimuka. Meanwhile, the results of crater water isotope tests obtained the highest results in Sikidang Crater with the value of the deuterium isotope is δD = – 10.300/00 and the isotope oxygen-18 is δ18O = 6.570/00 which are in the metamorphic water area from the mixing of magmatic processes with surface meteoric water. Based on the deuterium isotope approach with oxygen-18 crater water and fumarole condensate supported by subsurface temperature data, most of the Dieng Plateau has magmatic-hydrothermal characteristics, except Candradimuka Crater which belongs to the magmatic group.



isotope; deuterium; oxygen-18; mixing fraction; Dieng Plateau


Badan Geologi, 2011. Data Dasar Gunung Api Indonesia (2nd Edition). Bandung: Badan Geologi, Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral. DOI: 10.24198/jkk.vol1n1.6

Bemmelen, R.W. Van, 1949. The Geology of Indonesia. Martinus Nijnhoff, Vol. IA, The Hague.

Chiodini, G., Cioni, R., Magro, G., Marini, L., Panichi, C., Raco, B., Russo, M., and Taddeucci, G., 1996. Chemical and isotopic variation of Bocca Grande fumarole (Solfatara Volcano, Phlegrean Fields). Acta Vulcanologica, 8 (2), p.129-138.

Cioni, R., Corazza, E., and Marini, L., 1984. The gas/steam ratio as indicator or heat transfer at the solfatara fumaroles, Phlegrean Fields (Italy). Bulletin of Volcanology, 47, p.295-302. DOI:10.1007/bf01961560

Craig, H., 1961. Isotopic Variations in Meteoric Waters. Science, 133 (3465), p.1702-1703. DOI:10.1126/science.133.3465.1702

Humaida, H., Sulistiyo, Y., and Hartiyatun, S., 2003. Fenomena Pegunungan Dieng Ditinjau dari Geokimia Gas. Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi, Yogyakarta.

Iskandar, I., Dermawan, F.A., Sianipar, J.Y., Suryantini, and Notosiswoyo, S., 2018. Characteristic and Mixing Mechanisms of Thermal Fluid at the Tampomas Volcano, West Java, Using Hydrogeochemistry, Stable Isotope and 222Rn Analyses. Geosciences, 8 (103). DOI:10.3390/geosciences8040103.

Kusumadinata, K., Hadian R., Hamidi, S., and Reksowirogo, L.D., 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Direktorat Vulkanologi, Departemen Pertambangan dan Energi RI.

Le Guern, F., Tazieff, H., and Pierret, R.F., 1982. An example of health hazard: People killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng plateau (Java, Indonesia), February 20th 1979. Bulletin of Volcanology, XXXXV, p.153-156. DOI:10.1007/bf02600430

Miller, C.D., Sukhyar, R., Santoso, and Hamidi, S., 1981. Eruptive History of the Dieng Mountain Region, Central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, p.83-68. DOI:10.3133/ofr8368

Panichi, C. and Volpi, G., 1999. Hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon isotope ratios of solfatara fumaroles (Phlegrean Fields, Italy): further insight into source processes. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 91 (2), p.321-328. DOI:10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00041-4.

Priatna, 2019. Karakteristik Vulkanik berdasarkan Korelasi Gas CO2 dengan Gas Sulfur serta Isotop Deuterium dengan Oksigen-18 di Dataran Tinggi Dieng, Jawa Tengah (Dengan Referensi Kawah Sikidang). Program Pascasarjana, Fakultas Teknik Geologi, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. DOI:10.14203/


Priatna, 2014. Karakteristik Gas Vulkanik dan Implementasinya dalam Manajemen Mitigasi Bencana Gunung Api di Kawasan Wisata Dataran Tinggi Dieng, Jawa Tengah. Program Magister Teknik Geologi, Fakultas Teknik Geologi, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. DOI:10.5614/bull.geol.2018.2.1.5

Priatna and Kadarsetia, E., 2007. Characteristics of volcanic gas correlated to the eruption activity; Case study in the Merapi Volcano, periods of 1990-1994. Jurnal Geologi Indonesia 2 (4), p.325-246. DOI:10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20074

Priatna. 1996. The Characteristics of volcanic gases to predict volcano activity in the word. Final Report of Course on Volcanology and Volcanic Sabo Engineering, JICA, Japan.

Sulistiyo, Y., Humaida, H., Sartini, E., and Suryono, 2002. Sebaran Gas CO2 di Pegunungan Dieng. Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi, Yogyakarta.

Zen, M.T. and Muzil, A., 1980. Hydrothermal Eruption at Sinila Crater, Dieng Volcanic Complex (Central Java). Bulletin Departemen Teknik Geologi. ITB, Bandung.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Indexing Site :




Follow us on:

shopify visitor statistics
View My Stats