Hydrothermal Dolomitization on Devonian to Carboniferous Carbonates in Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia: A Petrographic Study

Nurul Afiqah Mohammad Zahir, Mirza Arshad Beg, Askury Abdul Kadir



Thick Devonian carboniferous carbonates had been deposited in a shallow marine before they were uplifted by granitic intrusion during Triassic. This carbonate platform was selectively dolomitized along N-S oriented deep-seated fault that presented in the carbonate platform. Dolostones are characterized into significant matrix dolomites and several cement dolomites. In petrography point of view, matrix dolomites comprise very fine- to fine-crystalline nonplanar-anhedral dolomite (Dolo-I), fine- to coarse-crystalline nonplanar-anhedral to planar dolomite (Dolo-II), and fine- to medium-crystalline planar- dolomite (Dolo-III). Cement dolomites also consist of medium- to coarse-crystalline planar saddle dolomite (Dolo-IV) which halfway or totally fill disintegration vugs and breaks and coarse- to very coarse-crystalline nonplanar to planar dedolomite (Ded-I). Matrix dolomites predated cement dolomites, later infilled with sepiolite and calcite. The origins of matrix and cement dolomites and other diagenetic minerals are interpreted based on the petrography and isotopic signatures by a previous worker. Dolo-I dolomite was initiated by the early stage of dolomitization with the replacement of calcite by first driving fluids from low to high temperature of magmatic source. While Dolo-II dolomite was formed with slightly modified from Dolo-I and more Mg concentration inputs. Dolo-III dolomite was likely the consequence of hydrothermal fluids causing a brecciation textures as dolomite precipitated rapidly. Subsequently, in a high temperature, the Dolo-III dolomite was formed by precipitation of cement dolomite, hydrothermal fluids as evidenced by highly depleted values of isotopic δ18O. This study intends to provide useful information for understanding the dolomitization processes in alteration of hydrothermal related to Palaeozoic carbonates within Kinta Limestone.


Dolomite textures; hydrothermal dolomite; paragenetic sequence; Kinta limestone.


Adams, J. E., Rhodes, M. L., 1960. Dolomitization by seepage refluxion. AAPG Bull. 44, pp. 1912-1920.

Al-Aasm I. S., Packard J. J., 2000. Stabilization of early-formed dolomite: a tale of divergence from two Mississippian dolomites Sediment. Geol., 131, pp. 97-108. DOI:10.1016/S0037-0738(99)00132-3

Anua, N. E. Q. M. and Zabidi H., 2018. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1082 012095. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1082/1/012095

Budd, D. A., 1997. Cenozoic dolomites of carbonate islands: their attributes and origin. Earth Sci. Rev. 42, pp. 1-47. DOI:10.1016/S0012-8252(96)00051-7

Chen, D., Qing, H., Yang, C., 2004. Multistage hydrothermal dolomites in the Middle Devonian (Givetian) carbonates from the Guilin area, South China. Sedimentology51, pp. 1029-1051. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3091.2004.00659.x

Choong, C. M., Sautter, B., Pubellier, M., Menier, D., Weng Sum, C. and Askury Abd Kadir, 2014. Geological Features of the Kinta Valley. A Journal of Engineering, Science and Society, vol. 2 (10), pp. 1-14.

Cottam, M. A., Hall, R., Ghani, A. A., 2013. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonics of the Malay Peninsula constrained by thermochronology. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 76, pp. 241-257. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2013.04.029

Davies, G. R., Smith, L. B., 2006. Structurally controlled hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies: an overview. AAPG Bull. 90, pp. 1641-1690.

Dong, S., Chen, D., Qing, H., Zhou, X., Wang, D., Guo, Z., ... & Qian, Y., 2013. Hydrothermal alteration of dolostones in the Lower Ordovician, Tarim Basin, NW China: multiple constraints from petrology, isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusion microthermometry. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 46, pp. 270-286. DOI:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.06.013

Duggan, J. P., Mountjoy, E. W., & Stasiuk, L. D., 2001. Fault‐controlled dolomitization at Swan Hills Simonette oil field (Devonian), deep basin west‐central Alberta, Canada. Sedimentology, 48(2), pp. 301-323. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3091.2001.00364.x

Faliq Shukri, 2010. Characterization and origin of dolomite associated with hydrothermal iron ore in Paleozoic limestone, Kinta Valley. Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Unpublish Thesis (Undergraduate), 40 p.

Fontaine, H. and Ibrahim, B. A., 1995. Biostratigraphy of the Kinta Valley, Perak. Geological Society of Malaysia Bulletin 38, pp. 159-172.

Foo, K.Y., 1983. The Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks of Peninsular Malaysia - stratigraphy and correlation. Proceeding of Workshop on Stratigraphic Correlation of Thailand and Malaysia 1, pp. 1-19.

François, T., Md Ali, M. A., Matenco, L., Ng, T. F., Taib, N. I., Shuib, M. K., 2017. Late Cretaceous extension and exhumation of the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes, NE Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 143, pp. 296-314.

Gebretsadik, H. T., Sum, C. W. and Hunter, A. W., 2015. Proceedings of the International Conference on Integrated Petroleum Engineering and Geosciences, pp. 291-312. DOI:10.1007/978-981-287-368-2_28

Ghani, A.A., Searle, M., Robb, L., Chung, S.L., 2013. Transitional I-S type characteristic in the Main Range Granite, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 76, pp. 225-240.

Gregg, J. M. and Sibley, D. F., 1984. Epigenetic Dolomitization and the Origin of Xenotopic Dolomite Texture. Journals of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 54 (3), pp. 908-931.

Gregg, J. M. and Sibley, D. F., 1987. Classification of Dolomite Rock Textures. Journals of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 57 (6), pp. 967-975.

Gregg, J.M. and Shelton, K.L., 1990. Dolomitization and dolomite neomorphism in the back reef facies of the Bonneterre and Davis formations (Cambrian), south eastern Missouri. Journal of Sedimentary Research 60, pp. 549-562.

Guo, C., Chen, D., Qing, H., Dong, S., Li, G., Wang, D., ... & Liu, C. (2016). Multiple dolomitization and later hydrothermal alteration on the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician carbonates in the northern Tarim Basin, China. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 72, pp. 295-316. DOI:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.01.023

Hall, R. and Sevastjanova, I., 2012. Australian crust in Indonesia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 59, pp. 827–844. DOI:10.1080/08120099.2012.692335

Hardie, L. A., 1987. Dolomitization: a critical view of some current views. J. Sediment. Petrol. 57, pp. 166-183. DOI:10.1306/212F8AD5-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D

Harbury, N. A., Jones, M. E., Audley-Charles, M. G., Metcalfe, I. and Mohamad, K. R., 1990. Structural evolution of Mesozoic Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of the Geological Society of London 147, pp. 11-26.

Harun, Z., 2002. Late Mesozoic –Early Tertiary faults of Peninsular Malaysia. Geological Society of Malaysia Bulletin 45, pp. 117-120.

Hutchison, C. S., 1994. Geologisches Rundschau 82, pp. 388-405.

Hutchison, C. S., 1975. Geological Society of America Bulletin 86, pp. 797-806.

Ingham, F. T. & Bradford, E. P., 1960. Geology and Mineral Resources of the Kinta Valley, Perak. Federation of Malaya Geological Survey District Memoir 9, Malaya: Government Press.

Jacquemyn, C., El-Desouky, H., Hunt, D., Casini, G., Swennen, R., 2014. Dolomitization of the Latemar platform: fluid flow and dolomite evolution. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 55, pp. 43–67. DOI:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.01.017

Jie, Z., Jianfeng, S., Yigang, W., Yingchu, W., Xingping, Z., & Anping, H., 2001. PS Dedolomitization: Types, Mechanism and Its Relationship to Carbonate Reservoir Properties. Poster presentation at the AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, April.

Khoo, T. T. and Tan, B. K., 1983. The Geological Society of Thailand and the Geological Society of Malaysia, pp. 253-290.

Kräahenbuhl, R., 1991. Magmatism, tin mineralization and tectonics of the Main Range, Malaysia Peninsula: consequences for the plate tectonic model for Southeast Asia based on Rb-Sr, K-Ar and fission track data. Geological Society of Malaysia Bulletin 29, pp. 1-100.

Land, L. S., 1980. The isotopic and trace element geochemistry of dolomite: the state of the art. In: Zenger, D. H., Dunham, J. B., Ethington, R. L. (Eds.), Concepts and Models of Dolomitization, vol. 28, pp. 87-110. SEPM Special Publication.

Land, L. S., 1985. The origin of massive dolomite. J. Geol. Educ. 33, pp. 112-125. DOI:10.5408/0022-1368-33.2.112

Le Maitre, R.W., 1976. The chemical variability of some common igneous rocks. J. Petrol. 17, pp. 589-598. DOI:10.1093/petrology/17.4.589

Lee, C. P., 2009. Palaeozoic stratigraphy. In Hutchison, C. S., Tan, D. N. K. (Eds.), Geology of Peninsular Malaysia. University of Malaya and Geological Society of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 55-86.

López-Horgue, M. A., Iriarte, E., Schröder, S., Fernández-Mendiola, P. A., Caline, B., Corneyllie, H., & Zerti, S., 2010. Structurally controlled hydrothermal dolomites in Albian carbonates of the Asón valley, Basque Cantabrian Basin, Northern Spain. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 27(5), pp. 1069-1092. DOI:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.10.015

Machel, H.G., 2004, Concepts and models of dolomitization: A critical reappraisal, in Braithwaite, C.J.R., et al., eds., The geometry and petrogenesis of dolomite hydrocarbon reservoirs: Geological Society of London Special Publication 235, p. 7–63, doi: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2004.235.01.02.

Md. Ali, M. A., Willingshofer, E., Matenco, L., Francois, T., Daanen, T. P., Ng, T. F., Taib, N. I., Shuib, M.K., 2016. Kinematics of post-orogenic extension and exhumation of the Taku Schist, NE Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 127, pp. 63-75.

Meister, P., Mckenzie, J. A., Bernasconi, S. M., & Brack, P., 2013. Dolomite formation in the shallow seas of the Alpine Triassic. Sedimentology, 60(1), 270-291.

Metcalfe, I., 1984. Stratigraphy, palaeontology and palaeogeography of the Carboniferous of Southeast Asia. Mem. Soc. Geol. France No. 147, pp. 107–118.

Metcalfe, I., 1986. Late Palaeozoic palaeogeography of Southeast Asia: Some stratigraphical, palaeontological and palaeomagnetic constraints. Geological Society of Malaysia Bulletin 19, pp. 153–164.

Metcalfe, I., 1988. Origin and assembly of Southeast Asian continental terranes. In: M.G. Audley-Charles, A. Hallam (Eds.), Gondwana and Tethys. Geological Society of London Special Publications 37, pp. 101–118.

Metcalfe, I., 1990. Allochthonous terrane processes in Southeast Asia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A331, pp. 625–640.

Metcalfe, I., 1993. Permian conodonts from the Raub Gold Mine, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Warta Geologi 19, pp. 85–88.

Metcalfe, I., 1994. Gondwanaland origin, dispersion, and accretion of East and Southeast Asian continental terranes. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 7, pp. 333–347.

Metcalfe, I., 1996. Gondwanaland dispersion, Asian accretion and evolution of Eastern Tethys. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 43, pp. 605–623.

Metcalfe, I., 1998. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic geological evolution of the SE Asian region: multidisciplinary constraints and implications for biogeography. In: Hall, R., Holloway, J.D. (Eds.), Biogeography and Geological Evolution of SE Asia. Backhuys Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 25–41.

Metcalfe, I., 2000. The Bentong – Raub Suture Zone. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 18, pp. 691-712.

Metcalfe, I., 2002. Devonian and Carboniferous conodonts from the Kanthan Limestone, Peninsular Malaysia and their stratigraphic and tectonic implications. In: Hills, L.V., Henderson, C.M., Bamber, E.W. (Eds.), The Carboniferous and Permian of the World. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 19, pp. 552-579.

Metcalfe, I., 2002a. Permian tectonic framework and palaeogeography of SE Asia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 20, pp. 551–566.

Metcalfe, I., 2011a. Palaeozoic–Mesozoic history of SE Asia. In: Hall, R., Cottam, M., Wilson, M. (Eds.), The SE Asian Gateway: History and Tectonics of Australia–Asia Collision. Geological Society of London Special Publications 355, pp. 7–35.

Metcalfe, I., 2011b. Tectonic framework and Phanerozoic evolution of Sundaland. Gondwana Research 19, pp. 3–21.

Metcalfe, I., 2013. Tectonic Evolution of the Malay Peninsula. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences vol. 76, pp. 195–213.

Morrow, D. W., 1982. Diagenesis 2. Dolomite: Part 2. Dolomitization models and ancient dolostones. Geosci. Can. 9, pp. 95-107.

Montanez, I. P., Read, J. F., 1992. Fluid-rock interaction history during stabilization of early dolomites, Upper Knox Group (Lower Ordovician), US Appalachians. Journal of Sedimentary Research 62, pp. 753-778.

Ng, S. W. P., Chung, S. L., Robb, L. J., Searle, M. P., Ghani, A. A., Whitehouse, M. J., Oliver, G. J. H., Sone, M., Gardiner, N. J., Roselee, M. H., 2015a. Petrogenesis of Malaysian granitoids in the Southeast Asian tin belt: Part 1. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 127(9–10), pp. 1209–1237.

Ng, S. W. P., Whitehouse, M. J., Searle, M. P., Robb, L. J., Ghani, A. A., Chung, S. L., Oliver, G.J.H., Sone, M., Gardiner, N.J., Roselee, M. H., 2015b. Petrogenesis of Malaysian granitoids in the Southeast Asian tin belt: Part 2. U-Pb zircon geochronology and tectonic model. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 127 (9-10), pp. 1238–1258.

Pierson, B.J., 1981. The control of cathodoluminescence in dolomite by iron and manganese. Sedimentology 28, 601-610.

Purser, B. H., 1985. Dedolomite Porosity and Reservoir Properties of Middle Jurassic Carbonates in the Paris Basin, France. Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs, 341–355. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4612-5040-1_22.

Qing, H. and Mountjoy, E.W. 1989. Multistage dolomitization in Rainbow buildups, Middle Devonian Keg River Formation, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 59, p. 114-126.

Qing, H. and Mountjoy, E.W. 1994. Formation of coarsely crystalline, hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in the Presqu'ile Barrier, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 78, p. 55-77.

Rajah, S. S., 1979. The Kinta Tinfield, Malaysia. Bul. of Geological Society of Malaysia, vol. 11, pp. 111-136.

Ramkumar, M., Siddiqui, N. A., Mathew, M., Sautter, B., Hui, P. X., Nagarajan, R., Bre & Poppelreiter, M., 2019. Structural controls on polyphase hydrothermal dolomitization in the Kinta Valley, Malaysia: Paragenesis and regional tectono-magmatism. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences.

Rastall, R. H., 1927. The Limestone of the Kinta Valley, Federated Malay States. Geological Magazine 64, pp. 410-342.

Richardson, J. A., 1946. The stratigraphy and structure of the Arenaceous Formation of the Main Range Foothills, F.M.S. Geological Magazine 83 (5), pp. 217-229.

Richardson, J. A., 1947a. Facies change and lithological variation in the Permo-Carboniferous formation of north-west Pahang and south-west Kelantan, Malaya. Geological Magazine 85 (5), pp. 281-288.

Richardson, J. A., 1947b. An outline of the geomorphological evolution of British Malaya. Geological Magazine 84 (3), pp. 129-144.

Richter, B., Schmidtke, E., Fuller, M., Harbury, N., Samsudin, A. R., 1999. Palaeomagnetism of Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 17, pp. 477-519.

Ronchi P, Jadoul F, Ceriani A, Di Giulio A, Scotti P, Ortenzi A, Fantoni R, 2011. Multistage Dolomitization in an Early Jurassic Platform (Southern Alps, Italy): insights for the distribution of massive dolomitized bodies. Sedimentology, 58, pp. 532–65.

Ros, F. M., Yeap, E. B., 2000.Characteristics and origin of some limestone caves in the Sungai Perak Basin. Proceedings of Geological Society of Malaysia Annual Geological Conference, pp. 203-209.

Searle, M. P., Whitehouse, M. J., Robb, L. J., Ghani, A., Hutchison, C. S., Sone, M., Ng, W.P., Roselee, M. H., Chung, S. L., Oliver, G. J. H., 2012. Tectonic evolution of the Sibumasu–Indochina terrane collision zone in Thailand and Malaysia: constraints from new U-Pb zircon chronology of SE Asian tin granitoids. Journal of the Geological Society 169, pp. 489–500.

Scholle, P. A., and Ulmer-Scholle, D. S., 2003. A Color Guide to the Petrography of Carbonate Rocks: Grains, textures, porosity, diagenesis: AAPG Memoir 77, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A., pp. 371-392.

Shah, M. M., Poppelreiter M. C., Kadir, A. A., and Choong, C.C., 2018. Basement associated diagenetic modifications in the Upper Carboniferous –Lower Permian Kinta Limestone (perak, Malaysia): Field/microscopic observations, isotopic signatures and fluid inclusion studies. [Unpublish].

Shuib, M. K., 2009. Major faults. In: Hutchison, C.S., Tan, D.N.K. (Eds.), Geology of Peninsular Malaysia. University of Malaya and Geological Society of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 249-269.

Shukri, F. F, 2010. Characterization anand origin of dolomite associated with hydrothermal iron ore in Palaeozoic Limestone, Kinta Valley. Complete final year project.

Singh, D. S., Chu, L. H., Teoh, L. H., Loganathan, P., Cobbing, E. J., Mallick, D. I. J., 1984. The Stong Complex: a reassessment. Geological Society of Malaysia Bulletin, 17, pp. 61–77.

Sun, S. Q., 1994. A reappraisal of dolomite abundance and occurrence in the Phanerozoic: perspective. J. Sediment. Res. A64, pp. 396-404.

Suntharalingam, T., 1968. Upper Palaeozoic Stratigraphy of the Area West of kampar, Perak. Geological Society of Malaysia, Bulletin 1, pp. 1-15.

Tucker, M. E., Wright, V. P., 1990. Carbonate Sedimentology. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford.

Warren, J., 2000. Dolomite: occurrence, evolution and economically important as sociation. Earth Sci. Rev. 52, pp. 1-81.

Wilson, M. E., Evans, M. J., Oxtoby, N. H., Nas, D. S., Donnelly, T., & Thirlwall, M., 2007. Reservoir quality, textural evolution, and origin of fault-associated dolomites. AAPG bulletin, 91(9), pp. 1247-1272.

Wong, T. W., 1991. Geology and mineral resources of the Lumut-Teluk Intan area, Perak Darul Ridzuan. Geological Survey Map Report 3, pp. 1-96.

Zhu, D. C., Zhao, Z. D., Niu, Y., Dilek, Y., Mo, X. X., 2011. Lhasa terrane in southern Tibet came from Australia. Geology 39, pp. 727–730.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience by https://ijog.geologi.esdm.go.id/index.php/IJOG/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Indexing Site :




Follow us on:

shopify visitor statistics
View My Stats