Temporal Variations of Petrological Characteristics of Tangkil and Rajabasa Volcanic Rocks, Indonesia

Reza Firmansyah Hasibuan, Tsukasa Ohba, Mirzam Abdurrachman, Takashi Hoshide



Tangkil and Rajabasa Volcanoes are neighbouring subduction-zone volcanoes located on the southeast tip of Sumatra Island (Sunda Strait, Indonesia). Stratigraphic correlation of lavas in Tangkil-Rajabasa volcanic area was established from field observations, morphological analysis, and K-Ar dating analysis. Detailed petrography and geochemical data of two and eleven lava units from Tangkil and Rajabasa, respectively, were then integrated with the stratigraphy to show the temporal variations. Early stage (> 4.3 Ma) effusives of Tangkil Volcano are dacitic to rhyolitic (67-71 wt. % SiO2; Tklf), whereas the later (c. 4.3 Ma) rocks are basalt to basaltic andesite (c. 52 wt. % SiO2; Tklm). Tangkil shows bimodal magmatism, of which the felsic endmember is > 71 wt. % SiO2 and < 0.1 wt. % MgO. Lavas of Rajabasa Volcano are comparatively younger (c. 0.3 to 0.1 Ma) with compositions ranging from basalt to andesite (51-62 wt. % SiO2; Rbs). Chemical variations of Rajabasa accounts for the interactions of at least three endmembers: Mg-rich medium-K basalt magma, low-Mg medium-K basalt magma, and high-K andesitic magma. During the long evolution of Rbs magma system, the temporal chemistry shows rising-falling variation in SiO2 and MgO indicating the three magmas were active. The felsic endmember magma of Rajabasa is fixed in composition (at ~62 wt. % SiO2; ~2.2 wt. % MgO). The rocks from the last Tklf and Rbs indicate open system processes by containing plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts that show resorption of evolved core and overgrowth of less evolved mantle. The multiple zones of dissolution-overgrowth in plagioclase crystals and the fluctuating trend in temporal whole-rock variation suggest that the changes of magmatic condition in temperature, H2O, or chemical composition were repetitive.


temporal variation; evolution of magma; repeating magma recharge; Rajabasa volcano; Tangkil volcano; Sunda strait


Amma-Miyasaka, M. and Nakagawa, M., 2003. Evolution of deeper basaltic and shallower andesitic magmas during the AD 1469–1983 eruptions of Miyake-Jima Volcano, Izu–Mariana arc: inferences from temporal variations of mineral compositions in crystal-clots. Journal of Petrology, 44 (12), p.2113-2138. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egg072.

Andi Mangga, S., Amirudin, Suwarti, T., Gafoer, S., and Sidarto, 1994. Geology of the Tanjungkarang Quadrangle, Sumatra. Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, p.19.

Barber, A.J., Crow, M.J., and Milsom, J. (eds.), 2005. Sumatra: Geology, Resources and Tectonic Evolution. Geological Society of London.

Belkin, H.E., Kilburn, C.R., and de Vivo, B., 1993. Sampling and major element chemistry of the recent (AD 1631-1944) Vesuvius activity. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 58 (1-4), p.273-290. DOI:10.1016/0377-0273(93)90113-6.

Bemmelen, R.W. Van, 1949. The Geology of Indonesia, Government Printing Office. Nijhoff, The Hague.

Borgia, A., Poore, C., Carr, M.J., Melson, W.G., and Alvarado, G.E., 1988. Structural, stratigraphic, and petrologic aspects of the Arenal-Chato volcanic system, Costa Rica: evolution of a young stratovolcanic complex. Bulletin of Volcanology, 50 (2), p.86-105. DOI:10.1007/BF01275171.

Bronto, S., Asmoro, P., Hartono, G., and Sulistiyono, S., 2012. Evolution of Rajabasa Volcano in Kalianda Area and Its Vicinity, South Lampung Regency. Indonesian Journal on Geoscience, 7 (1), p.11-25. DOI:10.17014/ijog.v7i1.132.

Camus, G., Gourgaud, A., and Vincent, P.M., 1987. Petrologic evolution of Krakatau (Indonesia): implications for a future activity. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33 (4), p.299-316. DOI:10.1016/0377-0273(87)90020-5.

Carn, S.A. and Pyle, D.M., 2001. Petrology and geochemistry of the Lamongan Volcanic Field, East Java, Indonesia: primitive Sunda Arc magmas in an extensional tectonic setting?. Journal of Petrology, 42 (9), p.1643-1683. DOI:10.1093/petrology/42.9.1643.

Dempsey, S., 2013. Geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Sunda Arc (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University).

Fytikas, M. and Vougioukalakis, G., 1993. Volcanic structure and evolution of Kimolos and Polyegos (Milos Island group). Bulletin of Geological Society of Greece, 28, p.221-237.

Foden, J.D., 1983. The petrology of the calcalkaline lavas of Rindjani Volcano, east Sunda arc: a model for island arc petrogenesis. Journal of Petrology, 24 (1), p.98-130. DOI:10.1093/petrology/24.1.98.

Gardner, M.F., Troll, V.R., Gamble, J.A., Gertisser, R., Hart, G.L., Ellam, R.M., Harris, C., and Wolff, J.A., 2012. Crustal differentiation processes at Krakatau volcano, Indonesia. Journal of Petrology, 54 (1), p.149-182. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egs066.

Gerlach, D.C. and Grove, T.L., 1982. Petrology of Medicine Lake Highland volcanic: Characterization of endmembers of magma mixing. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 80 (2), p.147-159. DOI:10.1007/BF00374892.

Gertisser, R. and Keller, J., 2000. The geochemical evolution of Merapi Volcano (Central Java): medium-K and high-K associations. Abstract IAVCEI General Assembly, Bali, p.150.

Gertisser, R. and Keller, J., 2003. Temporal variations in magma composition at Merapi Volcano (Central Java, Indonesia): magmatic cycles during the past 2,000 years of explosive activity. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 123 (1-2), p.1-23. DOI:10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00025-8.

Ghiorso, M.S. and Sack, R.O., 1995. Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes IV. A revised and internally consistent thermodynamic model for the interpolation and extrapolation of liquid-solid equilibria in magmatic systems at elevated temperatures and pressures. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 119 (2-3), p.197-212. DOI:10.1007/BF00307281.

Gill, R., 2010. Igneous rocks and processes: a practical guide. John Wiley & Sons.

Grove, T.L., Baker, M.B., and Kinzler, R.J., 1984. Coupled CaAl-NaSi diffusion in plagioclase feldspar: Experiments and applications to cooling rate speedometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48 (10), p.2113-2121. DOI:10.1016/0016-7037(84) 90391-0.

Gualda, G.A., Ghiorso, M.S., Lemons, R.V., and Carley, T.L., 2012. Rhyolite-MELTS: a modified calibration of MELTS optimized for silica-rich, fluid-bearing magmatic systems. Journal of Petrology, 53 (5), p.875-890. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egr080.

Hall, R., 2009. Indonesia, geology. Encyclopedia of Islands, University California Press, Berkeley, California, p.454-460.

Harjono, H., Diament, M., Dubois, J., Larue, M., and Zen, M.T., 1991. Seismicity of the Sunda Strait: evidence for crustal extension and volcanological implications. Tectonics, 10 (1), p.17-30. DOI:10.1029/90TC00285.

Hasibuan, R.F., 2014. Geologi dan studi distribute rekahan pada batuan vulkanik kuarter Gunung Rajabasa dan sekitarnya, Kabupaten Lampung Selatan, Provinsi Lampung (Undergraduate Thesis, Institute of Technology, Bandung). DOI:10.25041/cepalo.v2no1.1763

Higgins, M.D., Voos, S., and Vander Auwera, J., 2015. Magmatic processes under Quizapu Volcano, Chile, identified from geochemical and textural studies. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 170 (5-6), p.51. DOI:10.1007/s00410-015-1209-5

Huchon, P. and Le Pichon, X., 1984. Sunda Strait and central Sumatra fault. Geology, 12 (11), p.668-672. DOI:10.1130/0091-7613(1984)12<668:SSACSF>2.0. CO;2.

Humphreys, M.C., Blundy, J.D., and Sparks, R.S.J., 2006. Magma evolution and open-system processes at Shiveluch Volcano: Insights from phenocryst zoning. Journal of Petrology, 47 (12), p.2303-2334. DOI:10.1093/petrology/egl045.

Innocenti, S., del Marmol, M.A., Voight, B., Andreastuti, S., and Furman, T., 2013. Textural and mineral chemistry constraints on evolution of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 61, p.20-37. DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.01.006.

Itaya, T., Nagao, K., Inoue, K., Honjou, Y., Okada, T., and Ogata, A., 1991. Argon isotope analysis by a newly developed mass spectrometric system for K–Ar dating. Mineralogical Journal, 15 (5), p.203-221. DOI:10.2465/minerj.15.203.

Le Bas, M., Maitre, R.L., Streckeisen, A., Zanettin, B., and IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks, 1986. A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram. Journal of Petrology, 27 (3), p.745-750. DOI:10.1093/petrology/27.3.745.

Le Maitre, R.W., Bateman, P., Dudek, A., Keller, J., Lameyre, J., Le Bas, M.J., Sabine, P.A., Schmid, R., Sorensen, H., Streckeisen, A., and Woolley, A.R., 1989. A classification of igneous rocks and glossary of terms. Recommendations of the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous rocks. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Malod, J.A., Karta, K., Beslier, M.O., and Zen Jr., M.T., 1995. From normal to oblique subduction: Tectonic relationships between Java and Sumatra. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 12 (1-2), p.85-93. DOI:10.1016/0743-9547(95)00023-2.

McCaffrey, R., 1991. Slip vectors and stretching of the Sumatran fore arc. Geology, 1 (9), p.881-884. DOI:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0881:SVASOT>2.3.CO;2.

Métrich, N., Vidal, C.M., Komorowski, J.C., Pratomo, I., Michel, A., Kartadinata, N., Prambada, O., Rachmat, H., and Surono, 2017. New Insights into Magma Differentiation and Storage in Holocene Crustal Reservoirs of the Lesser Sunda Arc: the Rinjani–Samalas Volcanic Complex (Lombok, Indonesia). Journal of Petrology, 58 (11), p.2257-2284. DOI: 10.1093/petrology/egy006.

Miyashiro, A., 1974. Volcanic rock series in island arcs and active continental margins. American Journal of Science, 274 (4), p.321-355. DOI:10.2475/ajs.274.4.321.

Morse, S.A., 1984. Cation diffusion in plagioclase feldspar. Science, 225 (4661), p.504-505. DOI:10.1126/science.225.4661.504.

Nagao, K. and Itaya, T., 1988. K-Ar age determination. Memoir of Geological Society of Japan, 29, p.521.

Nagao, K., Nishido, H., Itaya, T., and Ogata, K., 1984. An age determination by K-Ar method. Bulletin of the Hiruzen Research Institute, Okayama University of Science, 9, p.19−38.

Nakamura, M. and Shimakita, S., 1998. Dissolution origin and syn-entrapment compositional change of melt inclusion in plagioclase. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 161 (1-4), p.119-133. DOI:10.1016/S0012-821X(98)00144-7.

Nazarwin., 1994. Laporan Pemantauan Gunung Api Rajabasa dan Tinjauan Aspek-Aspek Geologinya di Daerah Kabupaten Lampung Selatan, Propinsi Lampung, Kantor Wilayah Departemen

Pertambangan dan Energi Provinsi Sumatra Selatan, Palembang. DOI:10.14710/jwl.6.1.58-73

Nelson, S.T. and Montana, A., 1992. Sieve-textured plagioclase in volcanic rocks produced by rapid decompression. American Mineralogist, 77 (11-12), p.1242-1249.

Newhall, C.G., 1979. Temporal variation in the lavas of Mayon Volcano, Philippines. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 6 (1-2), p.61-83. DOI:10.1016/0377-0273(79)90047-7.

Nier, A.O., 1950. A redetermination of the relative abundances of the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and potassium. Physical Review, 77 (6), p.789-793. DOI:10.1103/PhysRev.77.789.

Ninkovich, D., 1976. Late Cenozoic clockwise rotation of Sumatra. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 29 (2), p.269-275. DOI:10.1016/0012-821X(76)90130-8.

Nishimura, S., 1980. Geological survey around Krakatau, Indonesia (1). Tsukumo Earth Science, Kyoto Univ, 15, p.1−10.

Nishimura, S., Abe, E., Nishida, J.I., Yokoyama, T., Dharma, A., Hehanussa, P., and Hehuwat,., 1984. A gravity and volcanostratigraphic interpretation of the Lake Toba region, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Tectonophysics, 109 (3-4), p.253-272. DOI:10.1016/0040-1951(84)90144-6.

Nishimura, S., Nishida, J.I., Yokoyama, T., and Hehuwat, F., 1986. Neo-tectonics of the Strait of Sunda, Indonesia. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 1 (2), p.81-91. DOI:10.1016/0743-9547(86)90023-1.

Norini, G., Groppelli, G., Capra, L., and De Beni, E., 2004. Morphological analysis of Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico): new insights into the structure and evolution of an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano. Geomorphology, 62 (1-2), p.47-61. DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.02.010.

Pe-Piper, G., Piper, D.J., and Perissoratis, C., 2005. Neotectonics and the Kos Plateau Tuff eruption of 161 ka, South Aegean arc. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 139 (3-4), p.315-338. DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.08.014.

Piper, D.J.W. and Perissoratis, C., 2003. Quaternary neotectonics of the South Aegean arc. Marine Geology, 198 (3-4), p.259-288. DOI:10.1016/S0025-3227(03)00118-X.

Prosser, J.T. and Carr, M.J., 1987. Poás volcano, Costa Rica: geology of the summit region and spatial and temporal variations among the most recent lavas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33 (1-3), p.131-146. DOI:10.1016/0377-0273(87)90057-6.

Reubi, O. and Nicholls, I.A., 2004. Variability in eruptive dynamics associated with caldera collapse: an example from two successive eruptions at Batur volcanic field, Bali, Indonesia. Bulletin of Volcanology, 66 (2), p.134-148. DOI:10.1007/s00445-003-0298-6.

Steiger, R. and Jäger, E., 1977. Subcommission on geochronology: convention on the use of decay constants in geo-and cosmochronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 36 (3), p.359-362. DOI:10.1016/0012-821X(77)90060-7.

Suswati, Haerani, N., and Sutawidjaja, I. S., 2001. Laporan Pemetaan Geologi Gunung Api Rajabasa, Lampung. Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), No. 05-2517-L, 72 (Unpublished).

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal on Geoscience by https://ijog.geologi.esdm.go.id/index.php/IJOG/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Indexing Site :




Follow us on:

shopify visitor statistics
View My Stats